Wednesday, April 20, 2011


Chronic renal failure is the usual end result of gradual tissue destruction and loss of renal function. It may also result from the rapid progressing disease of sudden onset that destroys nephrons and causes irreversible kidney damage. There are manifestations of few symptoms from less than ¼ of glomerular filtration remains. This consists of normal parenchyma then deteriorates rapidly then symptoms worsen as renal function decreases. This is very fatal without treatment and only dialysis or kidney transplant can sustain life.

How does this happen?

  • Decreasing number of functioning nephrons 
  • Increased solute load from each nephrons à Alteration in GFR 
  • Reduced renal reserve: GFR of 35% to 50% of normal (No signs of impaired renal function) 
  • Renal insufficiency: GFR of 20% to 35% of normal (Possible hypertension, azotemia, and anemia) 
  • Renal failure: GFR of 20% to 25% of normal (Uremia, neurologic, cardiovascular, and GI symptoms) 
  • End-stage renal failure: GFR less than 20% of normal (Atrophy and fibrosis in renal tubules).

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