Lyme disease is a multi-systemic disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete transmitted through tick bite. This primarily occurs in areas inhabited by small deer ticks (Ixodes dammini). The disease typically manifests in three stages: early localized stage is characterized by a distinctive red rash accompanied by flulike symptoms; early disseminated stage is characterized by neurologic and cardiac abnormalities; and the late stage is characterized by arthritis, chronic neurologic problems.
How it happens?
- Tick injects spirochete-laden saliva into host’s bloodstream
- After 3 to 32 days of incubation
- Spirochetes outward causing characteristic red macule or papule rash (erythema chronicum migrans)
- Spirochetes disseminate to other skin sites or organs through bloodstream or lymph system
- Spirochetes may survive for years in joint, or they may trigger inflammatory response in host and die.